In the male the puberty appears from 8 to 12 months of age. When arriving to the puberty he will begin to mark his territory with urine, carrying out short and frequent micturitions.
In the female the first zeal appears in a dog from the 7 to 8 months of life, and it is characterized by a vaginal flow with some drops of blood that can last about 10-12 days and it will be continued by the ovulation (fertile period). This cycle will repeat every 6 months; it will start disappearing from the 9-10 years of age. In the case of not wanting to have any puppies, the sterilization is recommended before she has the first zeal, since by this form, the risk or probability that in a future she has mammary tumors it is almost null. In the case of not opting for surgery we can administered some drugs to avoid the zeal, but it will be necessary to get inform on the possible secondary effects. For this reason the use of this drugs should be only temporary (not during the lifetime of the dog)
It is also necessary to mention other alternatives as the male's sterilization (castration or vasectomy). The election of the different options will depend in particular on each case.