The regular dog owner is normally more interested in keeping his female dog from getting pregnant than in really knowing the secrets of canine reproduction, so we won't really get into details. If you have a female dog and it is already pregnant, you should talk about that with the veterinary.
However, even the people who don't pretend to turn their dogs into breeders should know something about the way the canine reproductive system works, because it can also get diseases and they should always be treated.
The female dogs don't need to get matted during heat in order to present many hormonal changes that characteristic of the pregnancy. There are female dogs that are not pregnant and behave as if they were, even reaching the point to treat its toys as puppies and produce huge quantities of milk. The psychological pregnancy or nervous pregnancy make the female dog suffer and may require a treatment, but the symptoms should normally disappear slowly within some time. The castrated female dogs are free from this problem.Dog Collars
The uterus of the affected dog with piometra is full of purulent fluid that may come out through vaginal discharges or get accumulated inside the body.
It more frequent happens in old female dogs, needing an urgent extirpation of the uterus since the toxins produced by the infection and poured on the blood flow can quickly damage the inner organs. If a non castrated female dog looks dejected and drinks more water than usual, it may have gotten this disease (either if it presents or not vaginal discharges) and it must be urgently checked by the veterinary.
Breast cancer is more frequent on female dogs than on women. If you notice any kind of swelling or inflammation on your female dog, have it examined by a veterinary. If there is anything diagnosed, the veterinary will take out the affected part and will have it analyzed. The mastectomy is frequently needed and in the case of dogs, this mean all the series located at both sides of the abdomen consist of only one breast. This is another problem that could be prevented with the castration, since it seems to be that the breast tumors need the feminine hormones to develop.
TESTICLES AND PROSTATE
The old, non castrated dogs suffer a lot more often from tumors on the testicles, prostate problems and certain type of tumor that can develop only with the presence of the masculine hormones. The castration is usually the solution or part of the treatment in all these diseases.
The hypertrophy of the prostrate, very frequent in dogs, cause abdominal disturbance, difficulties when defecating and sometimes blood emission through the prepuce. Even when it usually causes difficulties to urinate in men, this symptom is very strange in dogs.
All dogs secrete, every now and then, a yellowish substance through the prepuce. The responsible for this is a harmless bacteria, but if this happens to proliferate on an abnormal way, the secretion would turn into a problem and it would be necessary to provide antibiotics.